Der Copyright bzw. Urheberrechtsstreit wütet tatsächlich seit dem 6. Jahrhundert. Damals endete er im sog. “Bücherkrieg” und heute im Streit um #Artikel13 und der Einführung von #Uploadfilter im Rahmen eines Vorschlags zur Reform des Urheberrechts im digitalen Binnenmarkt. Das Fatale ist, dass bis heute daraus nichts gelernt wurde und immer noch nicht verstanden ist, was an Büchern und (digitalen) Informationen so grundlegend anders ist als an physischen Gegenständen sowie physischen Werken und warum es an der Zeit ist neue Regeln für das Informationszeitalter aufzustellen. Stattdessen spielen wir weiter nach alten Regeln in einer neuen Welt.
Die folgende Geschichte um den “Bücherkrieg” wegen eines Urheberrechts bzw. Copyright Streits um die Abschrift eines historisch bedeutsamen Buches, bekannt als “Die Bibel”, ist eine Symbol für und Spiegelung der aktuellen Ereignisse. Diese alte Geschichte kann dabei helfen zu verstehen, warum die aktuellen Entscheidungen zur Urheberrechtsreform und Artikel 13 falsch sind. Die Geschichte um die es geht ist auch eine Geschichte über den irischen Mönch und Missionar Columban von Iona, auch Colmcille genannt. Die Geschichte ist dem Kapitel 13 “Zu guter Letzt: Der initiale Copyright-Streit” aus dem Buch “The Open Revolution” von Rufus Pollock bzw. der deutschen Übersetzung von Sascha Berger, mit dem Titel “Die Open Revolution”, entnommen: https://digitalotopia.com/2018/12/20/die-open-revolution/
„Daten- bzw. Informationseigentum“ müssen neu gedacht und definiert werden. Dieser Gedanke war mir während meiner Arbeit an meinem Buch „Digitalotopia – Sind wir bereit für die (R)Evolution der Wirklichkeit?“ gekommen und hat sich bei der Übersetzung des Buches “The Open Revolution” von Rufus Pollock noch weiter vertieft. Die Idee und Kernthese dazu lautet, dass für das digitale Informationszeitalter und für die Einführung einer Open Welt die Definition eines „relationalen Dateneigentums“ bzw. eines „relationalen geistigen Eigentums“ eine notwendige Säule ist.
In diesem wichtigen und provokanten Buch wird eine neue Diagnose für die Missstände des digitalen Zeitalters vorgestellt und ein Weg in eine gerechtere, innovativere und profitablere Zukunft aufgezeigt. Wird die digitale Revolution uns eine digitale Diktatur oder eine digitale Demokratie bringen?
Ein Buch das ALLE lesen sollten, die sich mit den Themen Reform des #Urheberrecht, #Artikel13 (neu: Artikel 17), #Artikel12 (neu: Artikel 16), #Artikel11 (neu: Artikel 15), #Uploadfilter, #Leistungsschutz, #SaveTheInternet, geistiges Eigentum, Teilhabe und (digitale) Demokratie beschäftigen.
„Digitalotopia“ ist ein Ort in der Zukunft, der so gut sein kann und wird, wie wir ihn gestalten. Digitalotopia ist eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung und ein Entwurf einer nachhaltigen und humanen digitalen Utopie. Digitalotopia ist auch Buchprojektesowie ein Website-Blog, um Denkanstöße zu liefern, Konzepte sowie Strategien zu skizzieren und einen Beitrag zu einer für das Digitalzeitalter notwendigen Aufklärung 2.0 zu leisten.Dazu wird ein fundierter Überblick über die wichtigsten Facetten der Digitalisierung und Digital Technologien gegeben, Zusammenhänge hergestellt und Grundlagen verständlich gemacht. Auch werden Fragestellungen zu Herausforderungen, Risiken sowie Chancen für einen durch die Digitalisierung bzw. durch Digital Technologien angetriebenen ökonomischen, ökologischen, politischen und insbesondere gesellschaftlichen Wandel sowie Fragen nach dem Menschsein aufgegriffen. Die dazu angebotenen Antworten und Denkanstöße sollen Grundlage für einen offenen Diskurs sein.
It is the year 2118. At an international conference held in Asilomar, scientists from various disciplines declare the 21st century a lost century from a historical point of view. For their research, the scientists would like to use the big and many data generated at that time to gain valuable insights for medicine, sociology or historical science with their superintelligent computers. In the meantime, humans have succeeded in making artificial superintelligence, freely flowing data streams but nevertheless protected personal rights usable for exclusively meaningful and humane applications. But most of the data from that time was deleted. Only from small data, which could be reconstructed from inscriptions on gravestones, from eBooks or dusty books in national libraries, from documentaries or from Hollywood films, it is possible to derive by means of data-analysis how people lived at that time or what moved the people of that time.
What happened back then? It was the beginning of the digital age. People were insecure as to what would happen to their data. Data was misused several times. The most prominent example in the history books was the Facebook and Cambridge-Analytica scandal. By the way, both companies no longer exist today. Cambridge Analytica filed for bankruptcy shortly after the scandal became known. The social network Facebook, which from today’s point of view is prehistoric, was declared one of the commons infrastructures and it led to the foundation of the worldwide virtual interest network Digitalotopia, a so-called Decentralized Borderless Voluntary Nation (DBVN). Today such social networks belong to people and they are controlled, managed and developed by them through participatory processes. On 25th of May 2018, the updated European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which was created with positive intentions, entered into force with binding effect. Initially it led to multiple insecurity, some confusion and a fierce discourse between two opposing camps. The two camps were led on the one hand by the politician and data protector Jan Philip Albrecht and on the other hand by the author and blogger Sascha Lobo, a proponent of making meaningful use of an abundance of data. And what can you say? Somehow they were both right about their positions. Ultimately, the GDPR became a worldwide model for a data protection culture. First and foremost, Microsoft became the moral leader of the digital economy by adopting the European regulation and making it a global standard for business models. Finally, the European general regulation on data protection became an global general regulation on data protection, which was applied in all countries of the world, even in China.
So May 25th was declared a holiday all over the world, the Dataprotection Day. But nobody really had time to celebrate and sleep in that day. Because a reference ruling issued by the Hamburg Higher Administrative Court had led to the fact that every data processing service was obliged to give users the opportunity once a year to take note of the deletion of all data older than 27 months or to object to the deletion by popping up a so-called Data Delete Banner (DDB). In the DDB one could take note of the deletion of the data with a simple click on the Okay button, so that the irrevocable deletion of the data prescribed by the legislation was carried out immediately. If, however, one wanted to insist on storing the data, a multiple-stage verification procedure had to be carried out. This consisted of a 42-page explanation, which mainly used many technical terms to explain the risks of data retention. The fact that the text was actually read had to be validated with a procedure based on eye-tracking. As a result, reading really took a long time. In addition, a double opt-in and a triple‑factor authentication were used to secure consent for data retention confirmation. Only then could the service provider continue storing older personal data or special categories of personal data. Due to the technical possibilities with Big Data, however, almost everything was considered a special categories of personal data at that time and all data belonged to the users of the services due to a reform of the Data Property Regulation. So people all over the world spent every May 25th of each year all day long clicking hundreds of okay buttons in the Data Delete Banners to be able to use all services the following day again. Mai 26th of each year was, by the way, the day with the highest number of sick days of employees at that time, because they were all completely exhausted from the previous day by the many clicks and suffered from depressive moods.
Fortunately, on August 7th 2072, a comprehensive reform of the global data protection regulation entered into force. The GDPR was replaced by Human Intelligent and Meaningful Data Usage Regulation (HIMDUR). The clean-up work took decades until all IT systems worldwide were adapted to the new regulation and all people as well as all institutions could profit from the full benefits.
Finally, August 7th was declared a worldwide HIMDUR holiday. On this day, the intelligent use of data for humane and meaningful purposes is celebrated at many festivals around the world. It has become a special tradition on this holiday to send particularly embarrassing selfies of oneself and loved ones to unknown persons in the world. Nobody is concerned about a possible misuse of the selfies, because the implementation of HIMDUR has led to unrestricted trust in cyber security. The use of blockchain technology, artificial superintelligent data guards and personal digital assistants as data-trustees prevent data from being misused by not deleting the data in the night of 25th to 26th May, but instead moving it to a historical Big Data archive. This is where the data is stored with blocking periods, so that in future historians will be able to dig it up again and use it for data analyses after the protection periods have expired.
So far this is a fictional story!
But perhaps the European Data Protection
Regulation could actually become a killer for 21st century insights by
historical scientists via data analysis in the 22nd century?
Is it perhaps time to think more deeply about a highly secure Big Data Archive for historical data to preserve the valuable data generated by humans in the 21st century for future generations of scientists and historians? Surely such an archive would have to solve at least a storage space as well as a financing problem in order to become reality. The safety requirements would also pose a major challenge. The access to data from the archive might of course only be possible under observance of the legal blocking and/or protection periods respectivle it might be in open access according to the Data Retentiona & Archival Directives, as they are usual in particular for personal data (i.e. Open Access at the earliest after 10 years after death of a person). Such an archive seems to be a very sensible thing to do. After all, today’s historians only know from letters that emerged after his death, for example, that the philosopher Martin Heidegger had a love affair with his former student and politician Hanna Arendt. But the letters of the people of today and tomorrow, however, are mainly messenger messages, posts, likes or tweets.
And even without taking a look into the future, it is clear that Big Data use cases today require an abundance of data. Because only with an intelligent combination of big data and the analysis of that data, for example in medical diagnostics, can new and useful insights or findings be produced. This is not possible in the case of data frugality in which data is locked away for further use, separated from one another, not collected or even deleted.
According to the position of one camp, the #GDPR is nevertheless the necessary imposition to “preserve self-determination in the age of comprehensive information processing”. Data protection is important, as are informational self-determination and the right to privacy. But do the users of digital services really own the data they generate through their use? Is the ownership perhaps with the “Way of the Future”, the church of the Dataists, who want to pay homage there to a future artificial superintelligence. Or is the ownership rather in the hands of all human beings, and thus pass on to our descendants in particular, so that the data can be analysed by historians in the next century, and would thus be commons. The question of data ownership and data property has therefore not yet been answered clearly and meaningfully. But what exactly this means in the digital age, should be questioned again deeper also from a data philosophical point of view, in order to be able to make legal derivations from it. The #GDPR could certainly get the ball rolling. A possible approach is the concept of “relational data ownership” as explained in the article “Information, data and their good relations”.
What a #GDPR and a new data ownership regulation are not allowed to do in any case is to restrict freedom of information. It must not prevent the humane, meaningful and intelligent storage and usage of data today and in the future.
I’m looking forward to your feedback … here or on Twitter: @SaschaBerger
Israel had been high up on our list of places to go for many years. In 2013 Annika’s job took her to Ramallah in Palestine for a sewage works project. After her three-day trip via Israel (Tel Aviv) and an afternoon in Jerusalem, she was very keen to return and take a closer look at the country. But then the civil war in neighbouring Syria escalated and we decided it wasn’t safe enough to travel in the region. But what is really safe?
So when the invitation from our Israeli friends to the Servas Israel International Meeting 2016 on 15th-22nd May 2016 on “Water, Agriculture and Tourism”, it gave us both the opportunity and the encouragement we needed. We decided to travel to Israel from 13th-27th May 2016.
In a nutshell: We met lots of great people on this fantastic trip which helped to answer many of our questions about Israel’s special situation.
Because of the political situation in Israel, almost everyone has to do military service, and much time, money and effort is put into security throughout the country. This is particularly clear when you arrive in Israel, but even more so when you leave. At the Ben Gurion airport in Tel Aviv we were subjected to very different and in some cases extremely detailed questioning and body searches. There are even armed guards at the entrances to shopping malls and supermarkets. Sometimes they ask, “You have a gun?”, “No” … “OK, then you can go in.” Wherever you go in the country, including the tourist sights, there are young soldiers out on excursions, learning about their own country. After all, the more you know and appreciate about what you’re defending, the better. At the bus stations you can see the soldiers at the end of their shift, still in uniform with guns over their shoulders. Some of them disappear into the toilets and come out a few minutes later in sneakers, shorts and T-shirts, laughing and looking forward to their free evening. They still have their guns over their shoulders. Every house is legally obliged to have a mini-bunker, although they are often used as storerooms. Even in one of our hotels the bathroom was built to function as a bunker. On the inside it had an armour-plated door, and outside the window could be closed with a steel hatch.
At no point during our trip did we feel that we were exposed to more danger than on a trip in Europe. And not just because of our Servas friends, thanks to whom we had a full sight-seeing programme every day. We spent the first two nights with our guest family in Raanana near Tel Aviv. They gave us a very warm welcome and we had lively discussions about ourselves, our countries and cultures. Then we had two nights in Jerusalem, followed by three more nights in the Golan Heights. The whole event got started with an entertaining opening and welcome party on the first evening. As always, it was exciting to meet so many new people and to spend a whole week with them. Altogether we came from 12 different countries of the world, including (alongside Israel and Germany) Venezuela, South Korea, Columbia, India, Poland, the Ukraine, USA, Croatia, Italy and Australia.
The highlights, some of which we would never have seen as normal tourists, included: The largest cucumber plantation in the country; the world’s biggest sea water desalination plant in Ashkelon, which is used to produce drinking water so that less water needs to be taken from the Sea of Galilee, the water level of which has been rising again as a result; part of the Jordan where renaturation measures are in progress, and the place where Christians are baptised; Dschisr al-Zarqa, the poorest village in Israel where a young man has ventured into tourism by opening the first hotel; an historical kibbutz with a milk cow farm; historic and holy places around the Sea of Galilee; the Eshkol drinking water reservoir which is so important that it is guarded by the Israeli secret service.
We also visited a Druze family in Mejdal al-Shams, at the Syrian border, where probably the most delicious cherries in the world grow. I have never seen trees so full of juicy, delicious cherries.
Of course our programme also included a day in the fascinating city of Jerusalem visiting the historic part of town, excellently guided by the son of a long-standing Israeli Servas member.
We spent nearly half the time in the Golan Heights where we had the good fortune to spend great evenings on Adam’s farm, jogging together, swimming in the pool, singing, dancing, laughing and telling stories and having discussions. One memory that particularly stands out for me was the supper we all created with Indian, Australian, South American, Spanish, German, Israeli and other dishes (https://youtu.be/8xgivjXuELM , https://youtu.be/bJcYLYOCXFo). That was a real treat for the taste buds! Especially as the fruit and vegetables that grow in Israel are superb. In the evening everyone had an opportunity to present their country or region in any way they wanted. The presentations ranged from factual through funny to downright eccentric. They were as diverse as the people who had come together for the week.
In terms of countryside, Israel is a very dry country. The Negev Desert takes up about 60% of the whole area. This means that water is particularly important. We can’t judge whether the water is being divided fairly between Israeli, Palestinian and Syrian areas, as critical reports on the internet sometimes question. But the water and agriculture experts in our group were satisfied that Israel is equipped with state-of-the-art technology and uses its water relatively efficiently for agriculture and households, ensuring that natural water sources such as the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee are protected.
Whether we were travelling alone or in the group, the Israelis we met were always very welcoming. The one thing they long for more than people from other countries is a safe home they can call their own. They tend to be impatient at traffic lights and honk their horns if drivers don’t set off the moment the lights turn green. They’re proud of their country and want to show that it is progressive, cultivated and beautiful. And that is how it appeared to us.
At the end of the week together it was – as always – hard to say goodbye, and some of us shed a good many tears… But that’s life! Perhaps some of us will meet again. There was certainly no shortage of invitations on both sides. By organising this event, Servas Israel showed what wonderful things are possible. It was simply fantastic.
After this trip on „Water, Agriculture and Tourism“ and in view of the current situation with the continuing influx of refugees from Syria and other countries to Europe, we wish all people of the world peace and a safe home with enough food and water
Thank you to Servas Israel for this fantastic experience. We will come again. SEE YOU AGAIN SOON.
Nach dem sogenannten Moore’schen Gesetz steigen bei Computern bzw. Mikrochips die Rechenleistung und umgekehrt proportional die Größe exponentiell. Computer werden also immer leistungsfähiger und immer kompakter. Die Prognosen dazu sind die Folgenden:
Wir erreichen das Äquivalent der Rechenleistung eines menschlichen Gehirns für $ 1000 im Jahr 2023.
Wir erreichen das Äquivalent der Rechenleistung eines menschlichen Gehirns für 1 Cent im Jahr 2037.
Wir erreichen das Äquivalent der gesamten biologischen Rechenleistung der Menschheit für $ 1000 im Jahr 2049.
Wir erreichen das Äquivalent der gesamten biologischen Rechenleistung der Menschheit für 1 Cent im Jahr 2059.
Sicherlich vermag niemand mit Gewissheit sagen, wie die Zukunft aussehen wird, was sich zukünftig ereignen wird und wie sich unsere Gesellschaft durch Technologie und die Digitalisierung verändern wird. Um das zu erforschen gibt es Zukunftsforschungsinstitute. Jüngst wurde das Einstein Center Digital Future (ECDF) in Berlin gegründet. Das Weizenbaum-Institut für die vernetzte Gesellschaftbefasst sich mit der Untersuchung aktueller gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen, die sich im Zusammenhang mit der Digitalisierung abzeichnen, und versucht dabei insbesondere künftige politische und wirtschaftliche Handlungsoptionen zu skizzieren.
Traditionelle Unternehmen und traditionelle Märkte sind teilweise scheinbar von den Entwicklungen durch die Digitalisierung und der rasanten Geschwindigkeit mit denen diese vonstattengehen überrascht worden. Die sogenannte Disruption ist zum Schreckgespenst geworden. Damit ist gemeint, dass junge Unternehmen und Start-ups durch Innovationen und Schaffung neuer Märkte bestehende Geschäftsmodelle oder ganze Märkte zerstören und dabei etablierte Unternehmen ins Wanken bringen. Vielfach werden die neuen digitalen Geschäftsideen heute direkt global ausgerollt. So sind beispielsweise Amazon und Google innerhalb weniger Jahre zu Weltkonzernen aufgestiegen.